By Alexander A. Kokhanovsky
In Aerosol Optics, Alexander Kokhanovsky presents a finished overview of accessible concepts for the distant sensing of aerosols. even though commonly satellite tv for pc distant sensing is taken into account, ground-based recommendations also are mentioned. The paintings is based at the strong foundation of radiative move idea, coupled with Maxwell thought for the calculation of the scattering houses of small debris. particularly, the writer describes innovations for the decision of the column focus of aerosol debris and their optical sizing utilizing spaceborne optical instrumentation. nearly all of the concepts defined during this booklet use a so-called "library method". this technique depends the precalculated top-of-atmosphere reflectances (TOAR) for vaious atmospheric aerosol kinds. The comparability of measured and calculated TOARS permits one to symbolize the optically-equivalent aerosol state.
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Additional resources for Aerosol Optics: Light Absorption and Scattering by Particles in the Atmosphere
G. , propagation of laser pulses) and frequency change in the scattering processes. , lasing in aerosol media) are omitted. Even with so many simplified assumptions, the radiative transfer equation (RTE) has the following complicated form: Z ksca ~ t ð~ r; ~ nÞ ¼ Àkext It ð~ r; ~ nÞ þ r; ~ n0 Þ d~ r; ~ nÞ; pð~ n; ~ n0 ÞIt ð~ n0 þ B0 ð~ ð~ n grad gradÞI 4p 4p where ~ r ¼ x~ lx þ y~ ly þ z~ lz is the radius-vector of the observation point, the vector ~ r; ~ nÞ is ey þ n~ ez determines the direction of beam with the intensity It, B0 ð~ n ¼ l~ ex þ m~ the internal source function.
7. In the majority of cases, the distribution of scattered light around the ensemble of particles is azimuthally symmetrical (with respect to the incident light direction). Therefore, this distribution can be described using the single angle equal to zero in the direction of forward scattering and p in the backward direction. This angle is called the scattering angle h. The notion of the phase function pðhÞ is introduced to describe the angular distribution of the scattered light energy. The value of pðhÞdX /4 p gives a conditional probability of light scattering in the solid angle dX ¼ sin h dh df.
0Þ from the equation given above that Bðs; g; n; fÞ ¼ I0 x 0 pðhÞ eÀs=n 4 and the analytical integration of corresponding integrals for the downward and upward intensities as presented above becomes possible. This is discussed in the next section. 3 Thin aerosol layers For thin aerosol layers, all integrals in the integral equation for the source function can be neglected. The substitution of the remaining term B ¼ I0 x0 pðhÞ eÀs=n =4 in the integrals for the diffuse light intensity gives for a homogeneous plane-parallel aerosol layer: I" ðs; W; W0 ; fÞ ¼ x0 pðhÞI0 ½expðÀx À ðs À 1Þx0 Þ À expðÀsxÞ; 4ð s À 1 Þ I# ðs; W; W0 ; fÞ ¼ x0 pðhÞI0 ½expðÀxÞ À expðÀsxÞ; 4ð s À 1Þ where h ¼ arccosðcos W cos W0 þ sin W sin W0 cos fÞ, f is the relative azimuth of incident and diffused light beams, s ¼ cos W= cos W0 , x ¼ s= cos W, x0 ¼ s0 = cos W.