By Iakovos Vasiliou
This cutting edge research of Plato's ethics specializes in the idea that of advantage. in line with special readings of the main well known Platonic dialogues on advantage, it argues that there's a principal but formerly not noted conceptual contrast in Plato among the assumption of advantage because the ideal target of one's activities and the selection of which action-tokens or -types are virtuous. Appreciating the 'aiming/determining distinction' offers specific and jointly constant readings of the main famous Platonic dialogues on advantage in addition to unique interpretations of significant Platonic questions. in contrast to so much examinations of Plato's ethics, this examine doesn't take as its centrepiece the 'eudaimonist framework', which focusses at the dating among advantage and happiness. as an alternative Aiming at advantage in Plato argues that the dialogues themselves commence with the belief of the supremacy of advantage, learn how that declare may be defended, and handle find out how to make certain what constitutes the virtuous motion.
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Extra info for Aiming at Virtue in Plato
E. e. are bad for) it. To ﬂee death (whose nature Socrates does not know), then, by pursuing unjust actions (which he knows are wrong) is clearly prohibited. I shall reiterate that what Socrates knows is wrong is to do unjust actions. In this passage he is taking that description for granted. By contrast he never claims to know that certain types of actions (described in non-evaluative terms) or certain token actions are or are not unjust (barring, as always, the intervention of his divine sign).
We must ignore such things, however, as aims of action when they conﬂict with what virtue requires. I shall argue that while Socrates believes that one ought always to adhere to SV, it may well be that in some cases material beneﬁts gained or lost is a relevant factor in the determination of what the excellent action is here and now. To deny this would be to deny the relevance of, for example, a person’s 1 Although this sounds like a particularist position, it is not necessarily so. It could be the case that there are universal principles that could be made concrete enough to cover any possible case; or, perhaps more plausibly, there may be “prima facie” Rossian-type generalizations.
The literature on Socrates’ disavowal is vast, and I cannot comprehensively survey it here. But, in addition to discussion below, see Irwin (1977); Lesher (1987); Vlastos (1985/1994); Brickhouse and Smith (1994), ch. 2; Irwin (1995), §§16–18; Nozick (1995), and the reply by Fine (1996); Stokes (1997), 17–21; Benson (2000); Wolfsdorf (2004). Vlastos (1985/1994) proposes that Socrates must be working with two types of knowledge: elenctic knowledge and certain knowledge. For criticisms of Vlastos’ view see Lesher (1987); Irwin (1992); Brickhouse and Smith (1993); Nehamas (1998), ch.