By K. N. Liou
Sturdy e-book for either undergrads and grads. additionally important as a reference e-book for researchers.
Read or Download An Introduction to Atmospheric Radiation PDF
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Extra info for An Introduction to Atmospheric Radiation
Its temperature increases from a minimum of about 4000 K and stays between 4000 and 6000 K up to about 2000 km. Above this height, the temperature rises drastically, reaching about 105 –106 K. The temperature structure of the solar atmosphere is shown in Fig. 2 The temperature structure of the solar atmosphere and the regions where absorption lines are formed. Data constructed from the results published in Lean (1987) and Livingston et al. (1988). The symbols I and II denote a neutral atom and a singly ionized atom, respectively, and TR refers to the transition region.
When λ → 0, derive the expression referred to as the Wien distribution. Plot the Planck intensity for the temperatures of the sun and the earth–atmosphere system and compare these two approximations with the exact values. 11 (a) From Newton’s second law of motion and Coulomb’s law, ﬁnd the kinetic energy of an electron in a hydrogen atom moving with a velocity v in a circular orbit of radius r centered on its nucleus. Express r in terms of the quantum number n using the selection rule for the angular momentum mvr.
These outer electrons are bound to the nucleus by relatively small forces and can be easily separated from the nucleus by the absorption of photons. It follows that the ﬂow of photons coming from the interior is blocked by the appearance of the absorbing atoms. The blocking of these photons will cause the temperature to drop sharply at some depth below the surface. Thus, the outer region of the sun consists of a layer of relatively cool gas resting on top of a hotter interior. As a consequence, the gas at the bottom of the cool outer layer is heated by the hot gas in the interior.