Download An Introduction to Evolutionary Ethics by Scott M. James PDF

By Scott M. James

Providing the 1st common introductory textual content to this topic, the well timed Introduction to Evolutionary Ethics displays the main up to date examine and present concerns being debated in either psychology and philosophy. The ebook provides scholars to the parts of cognitive psychology, normative ethics, and metaethics.<ul type="disc">• the 1st common advent to evolutionary ethics• presents a finished survey of labor in 3 distinctive parts of study: cognitive psychology, normative ethics, and metaethics• provides the main updated examine to be had in either psychology and philosophy• Written in an attractive and obtainable sort for undergraduates and the basic reader• Discusses the evolution of morality, broadening its relevance to these learning psychology

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One piece of evidence indirectly conflicts with another when the first indicates that the second is from an unreliable source. Evidence can conflict in another way. To see it, let us consider a different story. Suppose that Mark takes his daughter’s temperature using an electronic thermometer. The thermometer reads 98◦ F. This is some evidence that the daughter does not have a fever. But suppose that Mark them remembers that the batteries are dying in the thermometer. This is some evidence that the thermometer might be giving a misreading, that maybe the thermometer is not working properly.

This is evidence that a bear is nearby. But suppose that her very experienced guide says that no bears have been in the area for 20 years. The guide’s testimony is evidence that no bear is nearby. In this case, there are two pieces of evidence that conflict: one indicates that a bear is nearby and the other indicates the opposite. Or imagine that during a trial one witness says that Jones was at the hotel, where the murder occurred and another witness claims that Jones was at home that night. Again, these two pieces of evidence conflict, since they point in opposite directions.

EVALUATING AN ARGUMENT When evaluating an argument there are only two sorts of questions to ask: 1. Is the argument valid? 2. Are its premises true? The Argument of Disagreement is valid, but its premises are not true. So it is not a good argument. Critical thinking assumes that truth is independent of our beliefs. Nonetheless, the realist might have a slight methodological advantage over both Relativism and Nihilism. It is sometimes suggested that Relativism and Nihilism are obstacles or impediments to critical thinking.

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