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By Zafar Iqbal, Mervyn K. Lewis

Zafar Iqbal and Mervyn okay. Lewis fill the distance in Western literature on governance matters from the point of view of Islamic economics. Islamic and Western viewpoints are in comparison, and a scientific research of key parts in governance from an Islamic perspective is supplied. the amount attracts on classical Islam and modern resources to supply a complete Islamic governance framework to distinction with the Western place.

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This may ultimately be attributed to the singularity of source material especially the Holy Qur an among both Shi ites and Sunnis. Thus the sources of shari ah are the Holy Qur an and the sunnah (the primary sources) and the interpretations and opinions of the learned jurists (the secondary sources). A brief outline is given below. The methodology of Islamic economics 29 PRIMARY SOURCES OF ISLAMIC JURISPRUDENCE Holy Qur an By far the most important source is the Holy Qur an, the collection of the revelations.

The legal validity of this source is referred back to the Holy Qur an which declares that in the life of Muhammad (pbuh) there is an excellent model for humanity to follow and that his extra Qur anic judgements are binding upon the Muslim community (3:31,132; 4:65,81; 7:157; 16:44; 33:36; 59:7). However, a distinction is usually made between non-legislative sunnah and legislative sunnah. The former refers to Prophet Muhammad’s acts in person that are peripheral to his Prophetic mission, peculiar to him, or not binding on his followers while the latter incorporates the normative The methodology of Islamic economics 31 rules and principles of shari ah that the Prophet laid down in his capacity as a messenger of God, as the head of state, or as an adjudicator (Kamali, 1998, pp.

Damascus replaces Madinah as Muslim centre Mu’awiya dies. Nominates his son, Yazid, as successor Second civil war over succession (murder of Ali’s son, Hussain, at the battle of Karbela) Caliphate of ‘Abd al-Malik Arabs conquer Seville Reign of Umar II, conciliatory Umayyad Caliph Battle of Poitiers ends Muslim expansion in France Third civil war (Shi’ite uprising. Revolt in support of the descendants of Abbas, the Prophet’s uncle, sees Abu al-Abbas of Abbasid house placed on the throne) Abbasid dynasty rules most of the Middle East Foundation of Baghdad as new capital of Abbasids Caliphate of Harun al-Rashid, zenith of Abbasid culture Caliphate of al-Ma’mun 661–750 680 680–92 685–705 712 717–20 732 744–50 750–1258 762–3 786–809 813–33 Buyid dynasty of Daylamite nomads rules Persia and most of central Middle East from Baghdad 945–1055 The methodology of Islamic economics 25 Seljuks rule Persia and central Middle East from Baghdad 1055–1118 Berber Almoravid (Moors) dynasty rules Morocco, expands into Africa and Spain 1056–1147 First Crusade.

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